Tag Archives: general aviation

Hawker Beechcraft Super King Air 350 Landing at Eagle Colorado

A Beechcraft Super King Air 350 lands on runway 25 at the Eagle County Regional airport west of Vail Colorado. Located in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, Eagle airport often makes top ten lists of extreme or dangerous airports. This is due to its high elevation, mountainous terrain and unpredictable weather. The approach to runway 25 at Eagle starts at the Kremmling VOR (RLG) 30 miles to the north east. This routing takes aircraft over rugged mountainous terrain that on pretty days can be one of North America’s prettiest areas to fly in. Unfortunately when the weather turns bad it can also be an area which needs to be approached with the greatest of respect. Mountain flying can be rewarding but, treacherous for the unsuspecting aviator. At an elevation of 6,540 feet, Eagle is one of the highest airports in the US and aircraft performance needs to be looked at closely before going. In addition, at the height of the sky season, the FAA imposes a slot system for arriving and departing private aircraft to better facilitate traffic flow. In this video we are flying into Eagle/vail just after the first snow fall of the season.

the Beechcraft Super King Air 350

The Beechcraft Super King Air 350 is a commuter category part 23 certified twin turboprop capable of carrying 8 to 12 passengers comfortably.  The aft portion of the cabin has an enclosed potty and a baggage area capable of handling 550 lbs of bags. It cruises at 310 kts and has a range of 1,700 nm. This capable twin has a max takeoff weight of 15,000 lbs which means that unlike the king air 200 a 350 captain must be type rated in the aircraft. With a nine passenger seat configuration you can carry nine passengers and a full load of fuel. At max takeoff weight, at sea level, on a 30o C day, with flaps  up, bleed air open and air-conditioning on the takeoff distance is 5,015 ft. Under the same conditions with the flaps at approach the takeoff distance is 4,187 ft.

King Air 350 Limitations, Specs, and Study Guide

Engines                                                                                   PT6A-60A
Engine shaft horsepower                                                        1050 SHP
N1 compressor
Max T.O./Continuous/Transient                                                 104%
Min idle                                                                                        62%
N2 propeller
Min idle                                                                                   1050 rpm
Max T.O./Climb/Cruise/Continuous                                       1700 rpm
Transient                                                                                1735 (7 min)
Transient                                                                                1870 (20 sec)
Max revers                                                                              1650
Max Start                                                                               1000oC  (5 sec)
Max Idle                                                                                   750oC
Max TO, continuous, cruise                                                    820oC
Max climb                                                                                785oC
Transient                                                                                  8500C  (20 sec)
Max                                                                                        100%
Transient                                                                               102% (7 min)
Transient                                                                               156% (20 sec)
Oil pressure
Min Idle                                                                                    60 psi
Min TO/Climb/Cruise/Cont                                                     90 psi
Max                                                                                       135 psi
Transient                                                                               200 psi
Oil temp 
Min start                                                                                 -40oC
Max Take off/continuous/transient                                     0-110oC
99-110oC limited to 10 minutes

Total oil each engine                                                   14 quarts/3.5 gallons
Operating range                                                          Max to 4 quarts low on dipstick

Maximum usable fuel                                                  3611 lbs/539 gal
Main fuel system                                                         2546 lbs/380 gal
Auxiliary fuel system                                                   1065 lbs/159 gal
Each main fuel tank system                                       1273 lbs/190 gal
Each Auxiliary tank                                                      533 lbs/79 gal
Max fuel imbalance                                                      300 lbs

Cross feeding only approved for one engine inoperative
Takeoff with less than 265 in each wing or fuel gauges in yellow arc prohibited
Approved fuels                                           Jet A, Jet A-1, Jet B, JP-4, JP-5, JP-8
(Only one standby pump required)
Emergency fuels                                       80 RED, 91/96, 100LL Blue, 100 Green 115/145 Purple
Limitations on the use of Aviation gasoline
150 hours between engine overhauls
Both standby pumps must be operative
Must be able to cross feed above 20,000 ft

Maximum Ramp Weight                                                         15,100 lbs
Maximum Take-off Weight                                                      15,000 lbs
Maximum Landing Weight                                                      15,000 lbs
Maximum Zero Fuel Weight                                                    12,500 lbs
Maximum Baggage compartment Weight                  550 lbs / 510 lbs with fold up seats

Maneuvering Speed VA                                                          184 KIAS
Max flaps Extension/Extended VFE
Approach                                                                                202 KIAS
Full Down                                                                               158 KIAS
Max Landing Gear Operating Speed  VLO
Extension                                                                               184 KIAS
Retraction                                                                              166 KIAS
Max landing Gear Extended VLE                                            184 KIAS
Air Minimum Control Speed VMCA
Flaps Up                                                                                  94 KIAS
Flaps Approach                                                                       93 KIAS
Max Operating Speed VMO
Sea Level to 21,000 feet                                                         263 KIAS
21,000 to 35,000 feet                                                        263-194 KIAS (.58 Mach)
Red Line VMCA                                                                         94 KIAS
White Arc (full flap operating range)                                     81 to 158 KIAS
Wide White Arc (stall speeds)                                              81 to 96 KIAS
81 is VSO stall speed at max wt. flaps down and idle power
96 is VS stall speed at max wt. flaps up and idle power
White Triangle (max speed approach flaps)                            202 KIAS
Blue Line (single engine best rate of climb)                             125 KIAS
Max demonstrated crosswind                                                    20 Kts
VX                                                                                              125 Kts
VY                                                                                              140 kts
VYSE                                                                                           125 Kts
VXSE                                                                                           125 Kts
Intentional one engine inoperative                                             110 kts
Turbulent air penetration speed                                                170 Kts
Max glide                                                                                   135 Kts
Emergency descent                                                                  184 Kts
Minimum Airspeed for sustained icing in flight                          140 Kts
Max airspeed for effective windshield deicing                           226 Kts

External power limits  28-28.4v, 300amps continuous/1000 amps momentarily

sea level to 34,000 ft                                                 100%
Above 34,000 ft                                                           95%
62% to 70% N1                                                           75%
70% to 100% N1                                                        100%

Starter Limits  
30 sec ON, 5 min OFF
30 sec ON, 5 min OFF
30 sec ON, 30 min OFF

Rudder Boost must be operational for all flights

Yaw damp is required above 5,000 ft. If dual strakes are installed yaw damp must be operational above 19,000 ft

Prop speed of 1768 indicates failure of the primary governor. Limit torque to 96% and flight may be continued.

Over speed governor limits speed to 1768 rpm by dumping oil from the prop

Fuel topping governor limits prop to 106% of selected rpm, also limits reverse to 95% n1

Speeds above 1768 rpm indicate primary and over speed governor failure

Auto feather must be operational for takeoff, climb, approach and landing.
Both power levers must be above 90% N1
If torque drops below 17% the other side disarms
If torque drops below 10% the prop feathers

Auto ignition activates at 17% torque

Pneumatic pressure normal operating range 12-20 psi

AC compressor is on the right engine, automatically cuts out if-
Refrigerant pressure too high or low
Ambient temp below 10oC
Right engine below 62% N1

Electric heat – for ground use only
Temperature controller must be in manual heat
Both forward and aft blowers must be on
Electric heat light must out before turning off blowers

Landing gear warning horn activates and the gear handle illuminates red when-
Flaps up or at approach, Power below 85% N1 and gear not down. Can be cancelled
Flaps beyond approach and gear not down. Cannot be cancelled
On the ground with the handle in the up position

Cabin pressure switch –DUMP- dumps cabin with a limit of 13,500 ft cabin altitude

BAT BUS switch – opens a RCCB between the battery bus and the battery (isolates the battery)

Battery switch – closes the battery relay and the battery bus tie to power the triple fed and center busses

BATTERY CHARGE Illuminates at 7.5 amps. Extinguishes at 6 amps

Flight idle low pitch stop – is a mechanically activated hydraulic stop. Set on ground as power climbs above 68-70% N1 and L/R PROP PITCH extinguishes

Ground idle low pitch stop – electrically actuated solenoid set at 10o below the flight idle pitch stop. The right squat switch de-powers the stop at lift off.

If in flight the solenoid receives power for more than 10 seconds PROP GND SOL illuminates – pulling the PROP GOV TEST circuit breaker de-powers the solenoid – the light is inhibited on the ground by the left squat switch.

L/R PROP PITCH – indicates the prop is more than 8o below the flight idle pitch stop

Compressor bleed valve – a pneumatic piston that ports P2.5 Air to prevent compressor stalls

Jet flap – vents P2.5 Air through a variable slot in each hollow strut that connects the accessory section to the compressor this produces a swirl effect for air entering the compressor, to improve low speed compressor characteristics.

Hot battery bus lights– entry way lights, baggage light, emergency lights

10,000 ft  CABIN ALTITUDE illuminates
12,000 ft  CABIN ALT HI illuminates
12,500 ft passenger oxygen mask deploy
13,500 cabin dumb switch limit

L/R FUEL QTY 300 lbs less than 30 minutes remaining at max continuous power

Max cabin pressurization differential 6.6 psi, CABIN DIF HI at 6.9 psi

Aircraft Dimensions
length                                   46’ 8”
Height                                   14’ 4”
Wingspan                            57’ 11”

Battery Bus
Battery relay
Battery bus tie
Ground Comm
Cabin entry lights
Digital clocks
Door lock lights
Instrument emergency lights
Engine Fire extinguisher L/R

Emergency Bus
Pilot ADI
Pilot HIS
Nav 1
Comm 1
glideslope 1
compass 2
marker beacon 1
radio relays

Cessna Citation VII Instrument Panel

citation vii instrument panel

The Cessna Citation VII, the last of the Citation 650’s, is an upgraded Citation III powered by two Garrett TFE731-4r-2s turbofan engines capable of producing 4,080 lbs of thrust. It has a maximum cruise speed of 480 knots, a range of 2,000 nm and a 51,000 ft service ceiling. The VII was Cessna’s corporate jet that it marketed against the Lear Jet lineup of high speed private jets. The 7 is capable of .85 Mach or 85% the speed of sound. Cessna surpassed this when they built the Citation X which is capable of mach .92. A total of 119 VII’s were built.

How to Charter a Private Jet

A Cessna Citation Excel Charter Jet

Today’s air traveler has three options, buy an airline ticket, buy a private jet or charter a jet. The charter option gives you all the benefits of owning a jet without the downside of ownership. You get the convenience owners have without any of the ownership expenses or headaches. Thousands of air travelers have given up the frustration and inconvenience of flying the airlines for the hassle free experience of flying on a charter jet. FAA Certified Air Carriers or Air Taxi Operators provide a wide range of jet aircraft ready to satisfy the needs of today’s busy air travelers. Flying with a charter company comes with all the conveniences of owning a jet bu none of the downside.
Many charter operators have a variety of aircraft to fit varying missions and provide the aircraft and crew that best fit your needs. This type of flying gives you control over your travel schedule, privacy and access to thousands more airports than the scheduled airlines serve. Your jet departs on your schedule, there’s no frustrating check in process, and it takes you closer to where you want to go. Every seat is first class and many charter aircraft have ac outlets for portable electronics. On the day you’ve scheduled your trip, drive up to the aircraft. The crew will take your bags and you step from your car to your private jet. No waiting. Running behind; no problem. We’re leaving on your schedule not ours.
To set up your first charter flight, call your local airport and ask for the names and phone numbers of local Air Taxi Operators. They’re also referred to as 135 operators. When you call they’ll want to know where you want to go, time of departure, when you want to return, any intermediate stops you want to make, how many people are going, how much baggage you’re taking, catering requests if any, and if you need ground transportation arranged at your destination. Each operator call back with a quote and you select the company that best meets your needs. Be sure to ask about any additional fees like airport landing fees, overnight fees, pilot wait time, or hanger. Most operators charge by the mile or by the hour. You can expect to be quoted for the round trip whether you’re going one way or not and a minimum of two hours a day when the aircraft sits.

Cessna Citation II landing Naples Florida

A Cessna Citation 550 charter jet crosses the beach at Naples Florida for a landing on runway 23 at APF. Landing view from the cockpit. The Naples Florida airport is just off the beach and landing on a clear day offers a great view of the beach area. Naples is not served by scheduled airline service, so the only flights in and out are general aviation flights or corporate jets.

A Cessna Citation Encore Landing Scott Air Force Base

A Cessna Citation CE-560 passes low over a train during a training flight. We were doing multiple practice approaches at Scott Air Force Base in preparation for a type ride with the FAA. Scott is a joint use base with the the Air Force on one side and general aviation businesses on the other. This approach was an ILS to runway 32R with a 200 foot decision height. We got the minimums call(200′) as we passed over the train. If you fly, be safe. If you don’t, call your local airport and sign up for an introductory flying lesson.

Cessna Citation II St Louis to Dallas Love

A Citation II flight from St Louis to Dallas Love. This video includes cockpit and cabin views. The Cessna Citation II or Citation 550 was designed as a Stretched version of the Citation one configured for 8-10 passengers. It first flew in 1977 and competed with the turboprop market as a step up entry level jet. When production had ceased Cessna had built 603 CE-550’s. It’s powered by two Pratt and Whitney JT15D-4 turbofan engines that generate 2,500 lbs of thrust each. It cruises at 360 kts and has a range of 1,200nm.

Cessna Citation II Landing in Rain

The Cockpit view from a Cessna Citation 550 corporate jet as we fly around weather. We use weather radar and a GNS 530 with XM Satellite and WX Weather Service to avoid the cells.  This combination is the best way to go. I like to think of the Garmin as my strategic display for weather planning and the weather radar as my tactical display for maneuvering around cells. At our destination we have to fly around some cells and get into a little rain just before landing.